Knowledge Transfer: From infosphere to a knowledge society, (in)formation and educ-a(c)tion in the global village of XXI century

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ABSTRACT: Starting from the legacies of the previous Industrial Revolutions, this work wants to take a picture of the preludes of the current one, the Fourth, between opportunities and risks, in particular for the aspects concerning the science of law. Acknowledging that we are living in the Information Society, the Author considers, analyzes and proposes a paradigm shift towards the knowledge society: necessarily (at least) from a European perspective. To do this, he considers an effective and efficient Knowledge Transfer between research and enterprise to be essential, necessarily using the art of law for its success. Considering the binomial law-technology as a complex but effective tool to create an intermediary structure between supply and demand of intellectual property (primarily between public and private). Therefore, proposing through the legal-technological architecture the establishment of a continental office (cluster), characterized by a meaningful common communication between the research centers and the universities of the European Union with its productive pattern, specifically for small and medium-sized enterprises: making sure to contribute to the mobilization of the precious information concerning IPs in the effective knowledge or at least knowability of the existing economic actors, so that the aforementioned information is transformed into in-formation and education-action for a union and a profitable partnership in the global society of the 21st century.

INDEX: 1) Introduction 2) From state of the art to a proposal for an European game-changer knowledge culture 3) Artificial intelligence as deus ex machina of the next decades of Intellectual Property 4) Conclusion. The new beginning of knowledge for a new intellectual propriety transfer

 

  • INTRODUCTION

 

The assumption of this proposal is that the XXII century cannot be waited through the mere passing of time, but it must necessarily be built by us. In particular, I believe that there are two distinct but coordinated fields in which, probably, it won’t be possible to just adapt the laws of the thousand-year old human tradition, but they shall be reinvented ex novo, at least partially. In fact, the changes that are ahead of us have no equals in speed and importance: and it is therefore necessary to discipline them through the “arsenal” of law.

Because the law is an excellent tool capable of influencing the society and, with it, History. Thus conceiving the legal system at the service of humanity. Well, two of these fields that may need an important regulatory push are the cosmic space and, even closer in the distortion of effects, the 4.0 technological revolution.

While for the cosmic space we may still have time to lay the foundations of a new order, the second entails a patent urgency of reformation.

Big data, their storage (conservation), processing, discernment, fueling (including energy), interrelation, interpretation, execution, consequences and responsibilities; artificial intelligence; instantaneous, pervasive and ubiquitous connections as well as robotization and cybernetic grafts: all of this will entail sources and consequences that are now still unimaginable and which could make even the last two industrial revolutions (that of information technology and that of internet digitization), seem modest. Suffice it to think of the possibilities that arise on copyright, patents and IPs in general that can be created by artificial intelligences, perhaps even generating AI derived in turn from other algorithms and not from human intervention and subsequently capable of experimenting others, autonomous and complete functions capable of delivering intellectual property (IP). Therefore, it is a necessary task to enhance the positivity of these potentials and give them value through the most efficient and effective possible method, also foreseeing their limits, and thus building a design capable of turning a possible vicious circuit into a virtuous spiral of progress, development, wealth, inventive circulation and novelties employing and improving the world.

In order to do so, information is necessary but not sufficient. It is essential that every information is interpreted and understood. But even if today we have “too much” information, we must at the same time be careful not to lose the “noble” ones, the intrinsically “good” ones, because they are the result of long years of study: those coming from research centers and universities. Because there is no worse waste than something you already have without knowing to have it, and in a certain way this happens every time there is a demand that does not meet the supply, in this case the supply of intellectual property. This is a problem that can be solved through knowledge transfer. However, building a new infrastructure, even if conceptual, legal and technological, can make the existing one more efficient but it can’t effectively improve it. Thus, within this framework, has been introduced a chapter in which we will discuss the need to broaden horizons, not only having to frame artificial intelligence legally and use it in our activities, but also considering it as the next enabling, profitable and accountability factor for the IP. Finally, we will proceed with the summary conclusions responding to the complexity of the challenge we face in order to convey an ideal and overall sense of the current work.

 

  • FROM STATE OF THE ART TO A PROPOSAL FOR AN EUROPEAN GAME-CHANGER KNOWLEDGE CULTURE

 

We are living in the Fourth Revolution[1], also an industrial[2] one.

Mankind is the cause and the consequence of the new paradigm for our species, since it itself is object and subject of its transformative destiny, as individuals, as a society and as a species: today, we are the horses that have been replaced by the wagons with internal combustion engines[3]. But there is one good news: the future is not the following page of a novel which has already been written, but it is something we create with our daily actions[4]. And, today, the reality is information[5]: the society of information[6].

Today’s society is the globalized one and more specifically the informational[7] one: we are immersed in data. We are information.

But there is something we understood in 2010s[8]: we are living in an informational overload[9], therefore we have to be educated and engineered to process data and big data in order to process, catalog, metabolize and enhance them, also through something other than us, which does not belong to the biosphere but which is synthetic (artificial intelligence) and which is built within the rule of law. So we, as law professionals, will be required to make a conceptual effort of systematic and systemic design to evolve from an infosphere society to a knowledge society: in primis by sharing, enhancing and capitalizing the European scientific research through its institutions, in order to collect, classify, disseminate, monetize, reward and enrich the best continental cradles of innovation, through the implementation of intellectual properties in companies (small, medium and large ones), in order to take advantage of this well of knowledge, whose basin shall be at least euro-unitarian.

The post-contemporaneity is a borderless reality: beyond any appearance and besides any difference, much more patently revealed by the pandemic due to the disease COVID-19. This one has manifested how the world is a village, through the unusual propagation speed of SARS-CoV-2 virus all over the world. Kind of a figure of speech of the infinitesimal spreading to infinity, besides the viral disease, is the information, spreading through the potential mean of the Web.

And just how the XX century did not begin with the blossom of January 1st but with the outbreak of World War I, the XXI century has been postponed to 2020[10], when the world in lock-down was forced to switch from the biological sphere to the digital one.

In such a context, the potentialities[11] and the differences[12] between city[13] and State[14], town[15] and province[16]; supranationality[17] and nationalism[18], liberty[19] and authority[20], public[21] and private[22] as well as privacy[23] and health[24] come to light, among risks[25] and opportunities[26]. A tension that can become a torsion for an accelerated future, which is inevitable in its realization, but conditionable in its judgment, subject to our actions: as a society.

For this reason, we necessarily have to think at ourselves as an European society and not a national one: a society with a regulation and an architecture which are ab origine ready to welcome third countries within the common market of IPs.

The focus of this article is the need[27] of “thinking differently”: and the picklock of this paper is the Knowledge Transfer.

The informational community is the combined provisions of the physical world (offline) and the digital one (online) and vice versa: composing the tertium datur for that entangled and ineradicable entity which is the «onlife»[28]. It is thus fundamental to think as, for and in sets, so big and powerful to be able to: influence, affect and pragmatically impact such a complex universe. A pragmatic actor[29] for its capacity of bearing this burden is the European Union[30], which I personally believe to be the most glorious construction in the history of the Old Continent. In such a construction, besides the four fundamental freedoms[31] (of goods, capitals, services and people), there is a further freedom to be preserved as democratically incommensurable: the informational, or better knowledge one (compared to the existential sacrifice of other “imperial” realities, such as the People’s Republic of China[32]). Knowledge which is technology; knowledge which is resources; knowledge which is power; knowledge which is words; knowledge which is us, in its and our instantaneousness, relevance, ubiquity and soul.

Knowledge which becomes culture when the information is spread[33] and it is understood and shared among the members of a community, of a union which is able to give them added value[34], to commercialize them and capitalize them[35]: «you can’t be a genius and sit on the bench. You have let others know your talent»[36]. In order to guarantee a highly specialized ruling class in this field, a single European Knowledge Transfer Office (KTO) must be set up: composed by highly specialized and multidisciplinary personnel, which can be contacted exclusively online via simplified procedures with the task of sending, where required, its officials and technicians on site to the requesting universities and research centers. In view of a proactive inclusion, the headquarters will be established in the capital of the country, on the theme considered the least innovative in Europe in the decade 2010-2019, in order to encourage it to be more innovative.

To put it plainly, let’s think of the information as books (contents), of the Network as the library (container) and of the Web (the key) as its most horizontal donation to access them, giving it to literary half of the world[37]. As never before in the history[38]: but not necessarily has the society educated itself with the same proportionality and not everything which is concretely possible has simultaneously been practiced. In this dynamic, in fact, besides the conservatism (politics), the ostracism (tradition), the diffidence (religion), and the resources (investment), the jurisprudence comes into play too, as an instrument which hinders or catalyses a change and which also influences its growth of judgment for a wonky or straight erection.

The creators of law and justice (especially the European justice) may not have been able or wanted to receive in one authentic discipline the train of the “dot.com” (2000s), whose liberal approach[39] has allowed a great expansion of the sector and only recently took a pragmatic turn[40], for its own and disruptive[41] , in the global panorama. This is what happened, for example, with the Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market (DSM)[42].

This first change (maybe exactly in terms of paradigmatic) of the European approach to the industrial revolution in progress, emancipates the European Union also from the idea that the fathers of the digital revolution, the United States of America[43], (who also first formulated a structured proposal of KT[44]), impressed on it. This is a sign of the concrete prosecution also of the project promoted in this scientific article.

But all this information as such, if detached from all the rest, remains an aseptic input: precious keys but without their safes (and beware: I did not write the contrary, that is to say the safes without their keys!). In fact, the information contains a semantics beyond the junction of its points which shape the meaning. It is thus founding and fundamental to make meaning out of the total complex of the environment who produced the information, where it reproduces: namely that connective tissue making information alive and making us alive along with it.

Exactly for this reason[45], it is necessary to design[46], even more of what the European institutions[47] have already done[48], a cluster, a system uniting inventions, discoveries and intellectuals properties of the institutions of public research and of universities. This cluster should be accessible with a moderately low entering fee (subscription with a periodical payment) by all the European companies. Regarding the IPs entailing a competition for the adjudication, a system of auctions[49] should be put into place, in order to be sure to obtain the necessary IPs. In addition, a system should be put into place, allowing the use of an IP without paying it una tantum (ex ante), but through three-monthly automatic fees calculated on the quantum of the value gained in the referred period for the ended reference point (ex post).

Of course, this way the maximum gain of even the most precious and successful IP may be lower than the current one. But, on the other hand, information asymmetries and system deficiencies would be avoided. The writer does not assure that on the long term the system would necessarily be more profitable than the current one, but he plans to design a feedback mechanism once the system is implemented in 5, 10 or 15 years, so that it would be possible to wait for the first effects on the medium term from its creation and for the subsequent corrections and improvements deemed necessary once the system will go full speed and will have provided an appropriate number of cases as reporting material.

Of course, all of this should have the integrated and integral support of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and its high expertise and proactivity on the subject, field of its mission[50].

Here it is, then, the need of the XXI century in the passage from the centrality of the res to the barycenter given by natural and legal people but not like in the XX century through the exaltation of the individual person[51], but rather through their relational connection, through their social (inter)connection characterizing today’s net hybridly identified in an interdependent and enfolding entity, such as that given by the physical environment (onland), the social environment (offline) and the digital environment (online); just like the one of the research (Universities); conservation-diffusion (cluster designed by us through this project) and firms.

Here are the premises, here is the state of the art of a composite reality, a not linear one and, precisely for this reason, so fascinating but in need of rules: modified, adapted, renewed but, above all, original rules. In order to establish ex novo a sustainable paradigm[52] of what we have to be, starting from what we are and in an eco-friendly growth prospect from and for humanity: finding an excellent balance between irredeemable guarantees (right), legal system (“(hard) law”) and netiquette or, better, political-social-cultural ethic (“soft law”) of our social order. An amalgam which will allow to prevent, sustain and react to the upheavals of this Fourth revolution, also industrial, and autonomously as well as independently determine us to set the tone in a responsabilizing ascent towards what we will decide to be.

 

  • ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AS DEUS EX MACHINA OF THE NEXT DECADES OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

 

The artificial intelligence[53] is looming over us, making us take for granted, however, a premise which is not: that is that the progress is unavoidable and that it moves forward limitlessly. Almost confusing progress with future in a false synonymousness: the latter is certainly unavoidable in its “if” and “when”, but not in its “goodness”. For this reason, it is fundamental that the future is the best possible progress in the compelling exigence of building the Future and not waiting for it: through the cultural base founding the reason, able to regulate the social sphere, which, at this point, is inextricably physical-digital, in an optimal balance of order and freedom, between rights and duties.

Talking about artificial intelligence and the discoveries related to it, we can connect all its creations deriving from research institutes and Universities to a separate but related cluster in which the shares are divided (like in a company) year after year according to the revenue produced by the commercial exploitation  (the profits) of the intellectual properties “created” by the algorithms and which could also work as a last resort guarantee for the damages that these algorithms may cause. The first problem would be how to “split” the shares of this “company”: this could be done through a diachronic calculation of the value (adjusted according to the inflation) of the IPs deriving from the Universities and the research institutes which would take part into it and generated from the 2020 to the last year for which we have data related to the launching year of this cluster.

“Weighing up” (multiplier) the values of the discoveries tendentially more for those occurred in the last 5 years; regardless of the last year of accomplishment, the maximum multiplier will be given to all the IPs dealing with the world of the artificial intelligence. This way, a “picture” would be given also of the resolution and of the added value of perseverance of excellence of the above-mentioned entities.

The choice for the shares of the new company is that of not excluding anybody from the beginning and of incorporating them, admitting the standard opt out by default. This way, the “outsider” of the world of algorithms will be encouraged to take interest into them (e.g.: academies  of philosophy or law), because: Just because you do not take an interest in artificial intelligent doesn’t mean politics won’t take an interest in you[54]. Acting this way, it is possible to imagine a future and design from now on the regulatory boundaries, without “chasing” the particular case trying to adapt it to the abstract one (the law) to which it can be lead back.

In other words, this means that this way the uncertainty of the future would be reduced and this would produce further investor developments (virtuous circle) in the research, in the development and in the creation of IPs and in their most efficient and effective exploitation (recte: profitable generalized use) possible.

This separate but coordinated order (cluster for AI) will also allow to accommodate the potentially almost endless IPs coming from the “synthetic” world; instantaneity of a world that would otherwise be difficult to regulate.

It is clear that this is an ambitious project. For this reason, a new legal “code” is going to be necessary (along with the civil and criminal one) that will support the complexity of reality. To do this, it will be necessary to compose a group of transversal and prestigious experts who can reduce uncertainties and emphasize improvements. Because, in jurisprudence (law), good and bad laws do not exist. Because of this, jurisprudence needs to contaminate itself with other fields, environments and knowledge such as the social, technological, cultural and philosophical ones, far beyond national borders. Even having the courage to undertake paths never beaten in human history. Assuming the law not as a limit but as quintessence in integral part of virtue.

The assumption considers the law as a phenomenal means to hinder or enhance the times, the ways and the effects of, for and in the change. If until now the Network has grown praeter legem (Uber; Airbnb o Facebook, etc.), the time has come to hinge and discipline its development in a path that’s on us to build, whose guard rail are represented by the identified principles, aimed to preserve and persevere our path, with the right limits as well as the right signage for the roads run by vehicles and not by horse-drawn coaches. This way it will be possible to prevent twistednesses (negative force) and impress the fly-wheel (positive cogency) to the potentialities of a world epidermally, apparently simpler but organically infinitely more complex and complicated than it has ever been.

Our polar star will always be the mantra of not confusing simplicity and oversimplification.

 

  • THE NEW BEGINNING OF KNOWLEDGE FOR A NEW INTELLECTUAL PROPRIETY TRASNFER

 

The law shall be considered as a means, not as an end, theologically hunched forwards something other and higher. The same goes for the intellectual properties: they are at the service of mankind. All of this while being well aware of penetrating this science in the connective and alive tissue that is the social one. In fact, the reason, the law and the technology represent an extraordinary arsenal which aims to be of service to the best goal of humankind: goal like purpose that nobody can give us, other than that sentient being such is the man himself. It will be up to us, as scholars, to address such tools into the righteous path. There shall be no fear of asserting: unpopular thesis; commensurate hypotheses even if daring; lateral thoughts; theories uniting transversal even if unorthodox knowledge and being founded on principles which are new and governed by changed responsibilities. In other words, one shall be ready to take each and every risk entitled to young intellectual avant-gardes in their crossing of those Pillars of Hercules which represent a timeless status quo, as long as someone does not make the maximum effort to elevate the human species.

Is it possible for a scientific article to be that utopic? Yes, because of the methodology of approach that has been indicated: enhancement of the largest number of IPs through effective knowledge; default of the opt-out mechanism; establishment of technological infrastructures together with the design of a law unafraid of daring new paradigms; inclusion of AI; enhancement of IP excellence and recognized enrichment.

In addition, there is a purpose, or rather, a mission that intends to interpret the dawn of this change as a propositional and proactive challenge for science, including law. This challenge should be impartial but not inert; it should ponder but know how to act. And it should act for a purpose to be achieved, even if it is utopian. But this one should be the “good” utopia to which reality must approach without ever touching it, instead of that (an end in itself) of oneiric but immobile dreams.

All of this should be possible thanks to our renewed efforts as young scholars: for a conception, an organization, a structure built precisely to enhance the knowledge transfer of IP through effectiveness.

The computational singularity is believed to be the last thing which will characterize the artificial intelligence: we still have a record in this world and we have to live up to expectations. And apparently the European Union, right last year, has made a huge first step ahead[55].

 

[1] L. Floridi, The Fourth Revolution: How the Infosphere is Reshaping Human Reality, Oxford University Press, 2014.

[2] Die neue Hightech-Strategie, Innovationen für Deutschland, Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF), August 2014, S. 4.

[3] L. Federici, Indagando il Domani: professionisti, tecnologia & impresa. Eco-sistema nell’ambiente lavorativo per un ambìto business, (conference), Forum Economy Roadshow, Florence (FI), 19 September 2019.

[4] M. Myklusch, Jack Blank and the Imagine Nation, Simon & Schuster, 2010.

[5] L. Floridi, The Information Society and Its Philosophy: Introduction to the Special Issue on The Philosophy of Information, Its Nature, and Future Developments, The Information Society 25(3):153-158, May 2009.

[6] L. Floridi, The Green and the Blue: A New Political Ontology for a Mature Information Society, Philosophisches Jahrbuch 2, 307-338, 17 November 2020.

[7] L. Floridi, The Logic of Information: A Theory of Philosophy as Conceptual Design, Oxford University Press, 2020.

[8] F. Menczer, T. Hills, Information Overload Helps Fake News Spread, and Social Media Knows It, Scientific American 323, 6, 54-61, December 2020.

[9] P. Roetzel, Information overload in the information age: a review of the literature from business administration, business psychology, and related disciplines with a bibliometric approach and framework development, Business Research (BuR), November 2019.

[10] L. Floridi, Conference Estate al MAXXI Libri Il verde e il blu di Luciano Floridi, Rome (RM), 7 October 2020.

[11] «I think a lot of times people are quite sort of negative about the present and about the future, but really if you are a student of history, when else would you really want to be alive?», E. Musk, Neuralink Launch Event, California Academy of Sciences, 16 July 2019.

[12] J. Guo, Income inequality today may be higher today than in any other era, The Washington Post, 1 July 2016.

[13] C. Hendrickson; M. Muro; W. A. Galston, Countering the geography of discontent: Strategies for left-behind places, Brookings, November 2018.

[14] G. Zagrebelsky, Diritto allo specchio, Torino (TO), Einaudi, 2018, pp. 57-86.

[15] C. Odendahl, J. Springford, S. Johnson, J. Murray, The big European sort? The diverging fortunes of Europe’s Region, Centre for European Reform, 08 May 2019.

[16] A. Widuto, Regional inequalities in the EU, European Parliamentary Research Service, May 2019.

[17] A. D’Appollonia, European Nationalism and European Union, in The Idea of Europe: From Antiquity to the European Union, Cambridge University Press, 2002, pp. 171-190.

[18] K. P. Clements, Authoritarian Populism and Atavistic Nationalism: 21st-Century Challenges to Peacebuilding and Development, Journal of Peacebuilding & Development Volume 13, 2018.

[19] M. J. Abramowitz, Democracy in Crisis, Freedom House – Freedom in the World 2018 annual report, January 2019.

[20] Z. Csaky, Dropping the Democratic Facade, Freedom House – Nations in Transit 2020, May 2020.

[21] B. Belina, Ending Public Space as We Know It, Vol. 38, in No. 1/2, Policing the Crisis—Policing in Crisis, 2011, pp. 13-27.

[22] S. Metcalf, Neoliberalism: the idea that swallowed the world, The Guardian, 18 August 2017.

[23] Resolution on Privacy as a Fundamental Human Right, 41st International Conference of Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners, Tirana (Albania), 21-24 October 2019.

[24] D. Busvine, A. Rinke, Germany flips to Apple-Google approach on smartphone contact tracing, Reuters, 26 April 2020.

[25] R. Brown, Global Warning: The Last Chance for Change, Reader’s Digest, 2007.

[26] L. Floridi, Il verde e il blu. Idee ingenue per migliorare la politica, Milano (MI), Raffaello Cortina Editore, 2020.

[27] D. Autor, D. Mindell, E. Reynolds, The Work of the Future: Building Better Jobs in an Age of Intelligent Machines, MIT Work of the Future Task Force, 17 November 2020.

[28] L. Floridi, The Onlife Manifesto: Being Human in a Hyperconnected Era, Springer, 2014.

[29] «The European Union is the main actor of European IP integration» [lecture], L. Manderieux, Bocconi University, 2 December 2020.

[30] About IP: article 118, The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).

[31] Article 4 (2) (a) and Articles 26, 27, 114 and 117 TFEU.

[32] Nikkei staff writers, Divided internet: China overtakes US as global data powerhouse, Nikkei Asia, 26 November 2020.

[33] K. K. Law, K. Kamoche, Re-conceptualising Knowledge Transfer Approach: A two-dimensional framework, Journal of General Management, 21 April 2017.

[34]F. Rossi, The governance of university-industry knowledge transfer, European Journal of Innovation Management, April 2010.

[35] C. Hayter, A legal perspective on university technology transfer, The Journal of Technology Transfer, April 2016.

[36] M. Musk, Le regole del successo secondo la modella Maye Musk, madre di Elon Musk, Forbes.it, 8 October 2018.

[37] To date, Internet users correspond to 59% of the world’s population (around 4.57 billion individuals), J. Clement, Global digital population as of April 2020, 24 April 2020.

[38] E. Brynjolfsson, A. McAfee, The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies, W. W. Norton & Company, 2014, pp. 110-111.

[39] M. Franzosi, O. Pollicino, G., Campus, The Digital Single Market Copyright, Aracne editrice, June 2016.

[40] O. Pollicino, G. De Gregorio, A Constitutional-Driven Change of Heart: ISP Liability and Artificial Intelligence in the Digital Single Market, The Global Community Yearbook of International Law and Jurisprudence 2018 (pp.237-264), August 2019.

[41] R. De Roia, P. De Rosa, L. Federici, B. Ferri, Group 5 – IP Presentation, Bocconi University, November 2020.

[42] Directive (EU) 2019/790 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 April 2019 on copyright and related rights in the Digital Single Market and amending Directives 96/9/EC and 2001/29/EC

[43] A. Aresu, Silicon Valley, i signori della Rete e altre storie, Limes Rivista Italiana di Geopolitica, 26 November 2020.

[44] The Patent and Trademark Law Amendments Act alias Bayh-Dole Act, R. 35 U.S.C. § 200-212.

[45] Case C-350-92: Spain vs. EU Council [1996] I- E.C.R. 1985.

[46] I. Walden, J. Cummins, P. Cahill, Knowledge Transfer in Commercial Law, The Journal of Innovation Impact, Vol. 7. No. 1, pages 163-176, 10 November 2014.

[47] Commission Recommendation of 10 April 2008 on the management of intellectual property in knowledge transfer activities and Code of Practice for universities and other public research organisations (notified under document number C(2008) 1329).

[48] Council Regulation (EC) No 40/94 of 20 December 1993 on the Community trade mark and Council Regulation (EC) No 6/2002 of 12 December 2001 on Community designs; Council Directive 91/250/EEC of 14 May 1991 on the legal protection of computer programs and Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society.

[49] P. R. Milgrom, R. B. Wilson, The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2020, Stockholm, October 2020.

[50] Frequently Asked Questions: Knowledge Transfer for Universities and Research Institutions, WIPO, 2020.

[51] «There are individual men and women and there are families […] There is no such thing as society», D. Keay, Interview of Margaret Thatcher to Women’s Own (No such thing as society), 23 September 1987.

[52] G. Verona, Academic Year Opening with Ursula von der Leyen, Bocconi University, Milan (MI), 28 November 2020.

[53] «Artificial intelligence combined with the Internet is humanity’s greatest discovery, comparable only to that of fire, a million years ago», O. Farinetti, lectio magistralis, Corporate Storytelling – In Parole Semplici, Scuola Holden, Turin, 20 May 2020.

[54] Original quote was «Just because you do not take an interest in politics doesn’t mean politics won’t take an interest in you», Pericles, c. 495 – 429 BC.

[55] A. Campbell, C. Cavalade, C. Haunold, P. Karanikic, A. Piccaluga, Knowledge Transfer Metrics – Towards a European-wide set of harmonised indicators, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2020.

 

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